Treatment depends on the size and location of the tumor, your age, and your overall health. You and your health care provider must decide whether to watch the tumor (observation), use radiation to stop it from growing, or try to remove it.
Many acoustic neuromas are small and grow very slowly. Small tumors with few or no symptoms may be followed, especially in older patients. Regular MRI scans will be done.
If they are not treated, some acoustic neuromas can damage the nerves involved in hearing and balance, as well as the nerves responsible for movement and feeling in the face. Very large tumors can lead to a buildup of fluid (hydrocephalus) in the brain, which can be life-threatening.
Removing an acoustic neuroma is more commonly done for:
- Larger tumors
- Tumors that are causing symptoms
- Tumors that are growing quickly
- Tumors that are pressing on the brain
Surgery is done to remove the tumor and prevent other nerve damage. Any hearing that is left is often lost with surgery.
Stereotactic radiosurgery focuses high-powered x-rays on a small area. It is considered to be a form of radiation therapy, not a surgical procedure. It may be used:
- To slow down or stop the growth of tumors that are hard to remove with surgery
- To treat patients who are unable to have surgery, such as the elderly or people who are very sick
Removing an acoustic neuroma can damage nerves, causing loss of hearing or weakness in the face muscles. This damage is more likely to occur when the tumor is large.