Normally, the kidney tubules allow most water to be removed and returned to the blood.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do not respond to a hormone in the body called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin. ADH normally tells the kidneys to make the urine more concentrated.
As a result of the defect, the kidneys release too much water into the urine. This causes the body to produce a large quantity of very dilute urine.
NDI is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth as a result of defect passed down through families. Usually men are affected, though women can pass the gene on to their children.
Most commonly, NDI develops because of other reasons. This is called an acquired disorder. Factors that can trigger the acquired form of this condition include:
- Blockage in the urinary tract
- High calcium levels
- Low potassium levels
- Use of certain drugs (lithium, demeclocycline, amphotericin B)