Genetic: Genetic counseling and screening during pregnancy can help parents understand risks and make plans and decisions.
Social: Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty will also help.
Toxic: Preventing exposure to lead, mercury, and other toxins reduces the risk of disability. Teaching women about the risks of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy can also help reduce risk.
Infectious diseases: Certain infections can lead to intellectual disability. Preventing these diseases reduces the risk. For example, rubella syndrome can be prevented through vaccination. Avoiding exposure to cat feces that can cause toxoplasmosis during pregnancy helps reduce disability from this infection.