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Pupil - white spots
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Pupil - white spots

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Leukocoria

White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black.

I Would Like to Learn About:

  • Considerations

    The pupil of the human eye is normally black. In flash photographs the pupil may appear red. This is called the "red reflex" by health care providers and is normal.

    Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to be white. This not a normal condition, and you need to see an eye care provider right away.

    There are many different causes of white pupil or white reflex. Other conditions also can mimic white pupil. If the cornea, which is normally clear, becomes cloudy, it may look similar to a white pupil. Although the causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different from those of a white pupil or white reflex, these problems also need medical attention right away.

    Cataracts may also cause the pupil to appear white.

  • Causes

    • Coats' disease - exudative retinopathy
    • Coloboma
    • Congenital cataract (may be hereditary or may result from other conditions, including congenital rubella, galactosemia, retrolental fibroplasia)
    • Persistent primary hyperplastic vitreous
    • Retinoblastoma
    • Toxocara canis (infection caused by a parasite)
    • Uveitis
  • Home Care

    Most causes of white pupil will cause decreased vision. This may often occur before the pupil appears to be white.

    Detecting a white pupil is especially important in infants. Babies are unable to communicate to others that their vision is decreased. It is also harder to measure an infant's vision during an eye exam.

    If you see a white pupil, make an appointment with your health care provider right away. Well-child exams routinely screen for a white pupil in children. A child that develops a white pupil or cloudy cornea needs immediate attention, preferably from an eye specialist.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Contact your health care provider if you notice any color changes in the pupil or cornea of the eye.

  • What to Expect at Your Office Visit

    The health care provider will do a physical exam and ask questions about your symptoms and medical history.

    The physical exam will include a detailed eye examination.

    The following tests may be performed:

    • Ophthalmoscopy
    • Slit-lamp exam
    • Standard eye exam
    • Visual acuity

    Other tests may that be done include a head CT or MRI scan.

Related Information

  Cloudy corneaCataract - adult...     Cataracts

References

Shields, C. Retinoblastoma. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3; chap 35.

Yanoff M, Cameron D. Disease of the visual system. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 431.

Olitsky SE, Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Examination of the eye. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 611.

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Review Date: 1/30/2014  

Reviewed By: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, Ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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