Health Information

Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema


Crepitus; Subcutaneous air; Tissue emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air gets into tissues under the skin. This usually occurs in the skin covering the chest wall or neck, but can also occur in other parts of the body.

I Would Like to Learn About:

  • Considerations

    Subcutaneous emphysema can often be seen as a smooth bulging of the skin. When a health care provider feels (palpates) the skin, it produces an unusual crackling sensation as the gas is pushed through the tissue.

  • Causes

    This is a rare condition. When it does occur, possible causes include:

    • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax), often occurring with a rib fracture
    • Facial bone fracture
    • Ruptured bronchial tube
    • Ruptured esophagus

    This condition can happen due to:

    • Blunt trauma
    • Breathing in cocaine
    • Corrosives or chemical burns of the esophagus
    • Diving injuries
    • Forceful vomiting" (Boerhaave's syndrome)
    • Gunshot wounds
    • Pertussis (whooping cough)
    • Stabbing
    • Certin medical procedures that insert a tube into the body, such as endoscopy, a central venous line, intubation, and bronchoscopy

    Air can also be found in between skin layers on the arms and legs or torso after certain infections, including gas gangrene.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Most of the conditions that cause subcutaneous emphysema are very severe, and you are likely already being treated by a doctor. Sometimes a hospital stay is needed, especially if due to an infection.

Related Information



Wolfson AB. ed: Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.


Review Date: 10/9/2012  

Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.


A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.