Voiding cystourethrogram

Voiding cystourethrogram


Cystourethrogram - voiding

A voiding cystourethrogram is an x-ray study of the bladder and urethra that is done while the bladder is emptying.

I Would Like to Learn About:

  • How the Test is Performed

    The test is performed in a hospital radiology department or in a health care provider's office by an x-ray technician.

    You will lie on your back on the x-ray table. A thin, flexible tube called a catheter will be gently inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and passed into the bladder.

    Contrast dye flows through the catheter into the bladder. This dye helps the bladder show up better on x-ray images.

    The x-rays are taken from various angles while the bladder is full of contrast dye. The catheter is removed so that you can urinate. Images are taken while you empty your bladder.

  • How to Prepare for the Test

    You must sign a consent form. You will be given a gown to wear.

    Remove all jewelry before the test. Inform the health care provider if you are:

    • Allergic to any medications
    • Allergic to x-ray contrast material
    • Pregnant
  • How the Test Will Feel

    You may feel some discomfort when the catheter is placed and while your bladder is full.

  • Why the Test is Performed

    This test may be done to diagnose the cause of urinary tract infections, especially in children who have had more than one urinary tract or bladder infection.

    It is also used to diagnose and evaluate:

    • Difficulty emptying the bladder
    • Birth defects with the bladder or urethra
    • Narrowing of the tube that carries urine out of the bladder (urethral stricture) in males
    • Urinary reflux from the bladder up into the kidney
  • Normal Results

    The bladder and urethra will be normal in size and function.

  • What Abnormal Results Mean

    Abnormal results may indicate the following:

    • Bladder does not empty properly because of a brain or nerve problem (neurogenic bladder)
    • Large prostate gland
    • Narrowing or scarring of the urethra
    • Pouch-like sacs (diverticula) on the walls of the bladder or urethra
    • Ureterocele
    • Urinary reflux nephropathy
  • Risks

    You may have some discomfort when urinating after this test because of irritation from the catheter.

    You may have bladder spasms after this test, which may be a sign of an allergic reaction to the contrast dye. Contact your health care provider if bothersome bladder spasms occur.

Related Information

  X-rayUrethral stricture...UreteroceleEnlarged prostate...Reflux nephropathy...Neurogenic bladder...Alcoholic neuropat...Autonomic neuropat...Urge incontinence...     Benign prostatic h...Urinary incontinen...


Fulgham PF, Bishoff JT. Urinary tract imaging: Basic principles.In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 4. 


Review Date: 10/9/2012  

Reviewed By: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Louis S. Liou, MD, PhD, Chief of Urology, Cambridge Health Alliance, Visiting Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School.

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